“Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances student’s learning.” (p. 373)

"using technological tools, students can reason about more general issues, such as parameter changes, and they can model and solve complex problems that were heretofore inaccessible to them" (p. 26)

High School: Modeling: "Modeling links classroom mathematics and statistics to everyday life, work, and decision-making. It is the process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to improve decisions. Quantities and their relationships in physical, economic, public policy, social and everyday situations can be modeled using mathematical and statistical methods. When making mathematical models, technology is valuable for varying assumptions, exploring consequences, and comparing predictions with data."

See especially Chapter 9: Technology to Support Learning, which includes the quotes below:

"Several groups have reviewed the literature on technology and learning and concluded that it has great potential to enhance student achievement and teacher learning, but only if it is used appropriately" (p. 206)

"In general, technology-based tools can enhance student performance when they are integrated into the curriculum and used in accordance with knowledge about learning (e.g., see especially White and Frederiksen, 1998). But the mere existence of these tools in the classroom provides no guarantee that student learning will improve; they have to be part of a coherent education approach." (p. 216)

"Technology can make it easier for teachers to give students feedback about their thinking and for students to revise their work." (p.216)

"Research on instructional software has generally shown positive effects on students’ achievement in mathematics as compared with instruction that does not incorporate such technologies. These studies show that technology-based drill and practice and tutorials can improve student performance in specific areas of mathematics. Other studies show that teaching computer programming to students can support the development of particular mathematical concepts, applications, and problem solving. However, the nature and strength of the results vary widely across these studies. In particular, one recent large, multisite national study found no significant effects of instructional tutorial (or tutorial and practice) software when implemented under typical conditions of use. Taken together, the available research is insufficient for identifying the factors that influence the effectiveness of instructional software under conventional circumstances." (pp. xxiii - xiv)

Multiple studies used as evidence for specific recommendations in the Practice Guide used computer interventions; search for "computer."

Recommendations 2, 3, and 4 (see the summary on page 1) include an emphasis on multiple models or visual representations for fraction concepts; many existing technology resources can help provide dynamic, feedback-rich representations.

From a checklist item for Recommendation 4: "Capitalize on novelty to spark initial interest. That is, use project-based learning, group work, innovative tasks, and technology to stir interest in a topic." (p. 9; see also p. 24-25)

"Across these studies, students in the high-interest conditions outperformed students in control conditions on study-specific indices of interest, motivation, and learning. The learning activities in each of these interventions share some or all of the following features: They were designed around contexts that students found engaging, made available a range of texts, used real-life settings, used technology, provided students’ with choice, and used group work." (p. 37)

For Tiers 2 and 3: "Provide about 10 minutes per session of instruction to build quick retrieval of basic arithmetic facts. Consider using technology, flash cards, and other materials for extensive practice to facilitate automatic retrieval." (p. 38)

Recommendation 5 is "Intervention materials should include opportunities for students to work with visual representations of mathematical ideas and interventionists should be proficient in the use of visual representations of mathematical ideas." (See p. 30 and further.) As noted above, computer technology resources can help provide dynamic, interactive visual representations and virtual manipulatives.

includes reference to MLTI on page 54, as well as research on writing by D. Silvernail and A. Gritter at USM's CEPARE (see above)

"calls for applying the advanced technologies used in our daily personal and professional lives to our entire education system to improve student learning, accelerate and scale up the adoption of effective practices, and use data and information for continuous improvement. It presents five goals with recommendations for states, districts, the federal government, and other stakeholders. Each goal addresses one of the five essential components of learning powered by technology: Learning, Assessment, Teaching, Infrastructure, and Productivity." (source: http://www.ed.gov/technology/netp-2010)

## Selected Publications Referencing Technology Use in Mathematics Education

These resources are only a selection of possible relevant resources; the list is neither definitive nor exhaustive.

## U.S. Mathematics Standards Documents

## Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000)

## Common Core State Standards - Mathematics

## Research-based Recommendations (national summary reports)

## How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition (2000)

## Foundations for Success: The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel

## Institute for Education Sciences (ies.ed.gov)

## Research Done in Maine

Center for Education Policy, Applied Research, and Evaluation (CEPARE) at the University of Southern Maine (USM)

## The National Education Technology Plan 2010

The National Education Technology Plan 2010: Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology